Global Litter Invertebrate
Tropical Botanical Garden (XTBG)
The Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Institute for Tropical Ecosystem Studies
University of Puerto Rico
PO Box 23341
San Juan, PR 00931-3341
Telephone: (+787) 764 0000 Ext. 2868
Fax: (+787) 772 1481
Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden (XTBG)
The Chinese Academy of Sciences
Xufu Road 88, Kunming
Yunnan, P. R. 650223
Telephone: (+86) 871 5160900
Fax: (+86) 871 5160916 (XTBG Kunming Section Office)
Xishuangbanna Station of Tropical Ecology (XSTE) was derived
from the Laboratory of Experimental Phytocoenology (established
in 1959) of the Kunming Institute of Botany, and Yunnan Permanent
Station of Biogeography (established in 1958) of the Chinese
Academy of Sciences (CAS). In 1964, these two units were
merged to establish the Laboratory of Experimental Phytocoenology
under Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, CAS. In 1986,
the Laboratory of Experimental Phytocoenology joined the
Kunming Institute of Ecology. In 1996, the Kunming Institute
of Ecology and Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden of
Kunming Institute of Botany were merged to form Xishuangbanna
Tropical Botanical Garden, administrated under CAS.
Xishuangbanna Station is located in the Youle Mountains
at the southern end of the Wuliang Mountains, south to the
Hengduan Mountains in the Western Yunnan, east to Lancang
River Fault. 101° 46' E, 21° 54' N, 560 m above sea
The experimental area of XSTE covers 308 km squared.
Site elevation ranges from 540-1691 m.
There are clearly dry and rainy seasons in one year, with
mean annual rainfall of 1557 mm, of which 1335 mm (87%) occurs
in rainy season of May - October, and 202 mm (only 13%) occurs
in dry season of November - April.
Mean annual air temperature is 21.5 °C, ranged from
14.8 °Cin the coldest month (January) to 25.5 °C
in the hottest month (June),
with a »10 °C accumulated
temperature of 7860 °C and without frost through over
Bedrock is Jurassic sandstone, Carboniferous limestone and
Permian limestone. Menglun Basin is underlain by Tertiary
conglomeerate, sandstone and Quaternary alluvium and diluvium.
Soils are mostly lateritic soil and lateritic red soil. Lateritic
soil is distributed in low-mountains, mid-mountains and hills
(below 800 m). Lateritic red soil is distributed in the area
with altitude from 800 to 1000 m. There is limestone soil
in limestone area. Alluvial soil is distributed along rivers.
Paddy soil is mainly developed in Menglun Basin. There are
many streams in this area. Luosuo River, into which more
than 20 streams running, flows through Menglun Basin.
Native Forest/Vegetation Types
Xishuangbanna is a part of rain forest region of northern
edge of the tropics with vegetation life zones classified
as tropical seasonal rain forest and monsoon forest. The
south-subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest is distributed
over the montane area above 700-800 m. A tropical seasonal
rain forest is protected in several nature reserves around
XSTE. Outside the nature reserves, various secondary vegetation
types are distributed over the areas of deforested and abandoned
lands of shifting cultivation.
XSTE is located at the northern margin of tropical southeast
Asia and is characterized by monsoon climate of northern